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Showing posts from 2016

Beef Genetics Education Team Announces National Essay Contest: “What does it mean to be a beef breeder in the 21st century?”

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Youth participating in 4-H, FFA, or junior beef breed organizations are encouraged to compete in a national essay contest. Essays should respond to the prompt “What does it mean to be a beef breeder in the 21st century?
The winning essay will be published in one of BEEF magazine’s online newsletters (e.g. BEEF Daily or BEEF Cow-Calf Weekly). The 2nd through 5th place essays will be published on A Steak in Genomics blog. We will award $500 for first, $300 for second, and $200 for third place in the contest. The first place winner will also receive 50 GeneMax Focus or PredicGEN tests. Essays will be judged by beef genetics extension specialists, breed association staff, and trade publication staff.
Essays will be judged on their ability to encourage best practices and technology adoption by describing: Trust and effectiveness of beef breeding best practices and technologies.Simplicity of using technology.The profit and sustainability outcomes of using best practices and technology.

Essays …

AHA Educational Forum: AHA Creative Services

Sean Jersett, Christy Bengno, Julie Mais, Alison Marx, Caryn Vaught

Number one piece of advise for an advertiser:
Be aware of your sale dates! You need to have the deadlines for dates to go to the printer and when catalogs will be to the customers. You need to have your ducks in a row before the printing date.

How do you handle photography?
Photos need to be high resolution, print quality photos to look good in the catalog. "We need to have the photos identified so we know how to use them," Bengno said. Dropbox or email is a good way to send in the photos. Make sure that email allows for the photos to be sent as high resolution. If you have a lot of photos, Dropbox is much easier. Put the photos in Dropbox and then share the folder with the AHA staff. Make sure you notify the AHA staff that you have added photos to an existing shared photo.

When using phones, make sure your phone has a high quality camera on your phone and that you have your phone setting to the highest resolu…

Brangus Journal: Understanding Genomic Prediction

Head on over to the Brangus Journal website to see some of my latest writing on genomic prediction.

The Dance Steps of Genomics Part I: Understanding Genomic Prediction Personally, it is probably my favorite of the articles I have written, so I would encourage you to make the time to read it.
What do you think of the article? As always, your feedback is welcome.
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AHA Educational Forum: myHERD services

Stacy Sanders and SyAnn Foster
AHA

"When we do things electronically, we are no longer waiting on the postal service," said Stacy Sanders.

He also noted that electronic reporting did not require any handling or processing by the association staff.

The electronic recording also eliminates paper work and automatically uses semen certificates that have been released to the breeder.

In addition to the AHA myHERD.org service, the association also allows you to use Genetic and Economic Management (G.E.M.) and CattleMax. AHA is also working with the smart phone app CALF BOOK. "We want to give you options, we want to give you something that works for you," Sanders said.

The myHERD service is also switching to a different system to enable a faster web interface, which will also work better on smaller screens like tablets and smartphones.

AHA has a goal of 80% of records turned in electronically. Weaning and yearling data is currently above 80% reported electronically, other …

Road Warrior: First Week of November Addition

This weekend I get to cross the state to visit with several producer groups.

Friday November 4th I will be speaking at 3pm at the Joplin Regional Stockyards during the Central States Beefmaster Breeders Association field day. The CSBBA will be having a performance bull sale at the Joplin Regional Stockyards the next day at 1 pm. I will be discussing the how and why of genomics.

Saturday, at 8am I will be speaking as part of the Pearls of Production Program at the University of Missouri South Farm Research Center in Columbia, MO. I will be discussing bull selection, and the South Farm herd bulls will be on display for viewing.

Saturday at 7 pm I will be speaking at the 2016 Beef Producers Seminar in Maryville, MO. The trade show will start at 2pm with demonstrations and presentations to follow.  I will be discussing genomic prediction, and we will have a live animal demonstration with a set of heifers that have commercial heifer genomic predictions.

Google says this will be 942 miles o…

Farm Management Program Addresses Tough Times and Tackles Tough Questions in Agriculture

According to Garry L. Mathes, chair of the 2016 Missouri Livestock Symposium, producers and land owners coming to the Missouri Livestock Symposium to participate in the farm management section can expect the speaker lineup to address some of the toughest questions facing agriculture today. Mathes continues to say that the Missouri Livestock Symposium continually strives to be on the cutting edge of producer education and our Farm Management section is designed to do just that. Dr. Scott Brown, University of Missouri ag economist, will return for the Saturday program to lead two discussions. The first talk focuses on “Land Values and Cash Rents: How Far Will They Fall” and the second talk concentrates on “Who is Winning the Agricultural Trade Game.” Dr. Brown brings many years of experience dealing with agricultural economics and farm management. Mathes notes Scott is an exceptional speaker and no one will want to miss his presentations.  Also speaking in the Farm Management Se…

eBEEF Monday: Economically Relevant Traits

Economically relevant traits (ERTs) are those that are directly associated with either a cost or a source of revenue.  Not all Expected Progeny Differences (EPDs) represent traits that are ERTs, and instead represent indicator traits. It is important for producers to know the difference between ERTs and indicator traits when making selection decisions.

For more information, see the eBEEF.org factsheet "Economically Relevant Traits."

Beefmaster Breeders United Convention: EPDs and Selection Indexes

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Matt Spangler
University of Nebraska-Lincoln

In the past, the only way we made improvement was through visual appraisal.

As the picture above shows, we can make a change, but how many of us want to wait 100 years?

Improvement can be accomplished through management and genetics.

In the past we (animal breeding scientist) have probably done a disservice to the industry by producing lots of EPDs, then dumping those in beef producers lap and then expect you all to make meaningful decisions with them. In some situations, this may be as valuable as a free cat.

There are many factors that can influence an animals record, for example a weaning weight. Weaning weight may be affected by age of the calf, age of the dam, how much it was feed, and other environmental factors.

So, we need to compare animals to their contemporaries, Contemporaries are animals of the same sex, raised at the same ranch with the same management. We can calculate a ratio of how different from the contemporary group each …

NBCEC Brown Bagger: Implementation of single step methodologies at Angus Genetics, Inc.

Steve Miller
AGI

Angus Genetic Services provides evaluations for AAA, CAA, and Charolais breed associations.

"The ship has sailed on using genomics. Breeders are using it now, and seeing the benefits of it," said Miller.

Previously at AGI, they have been using a two-step approach. In this method, a genomic prediction is created and then is used as an indicator trait for EPD estimation. The calibration data set size has increased dramatically as Angus breeders have used genomic-enhanced EPDs.

The orgininal method of incorporting genomic predictions as correlated trait.

In the future, we will stop referring to genomic-enhanced EPDs. We don't refer to EPDs as pedigree-enhanced or performance-enhanced, we simply refer to them as EPDs. In the future use of genomic data in genetic prediction will become so routine that we will simply call them EPDs.

Is the Animal Model Obsolute?


In single-step genomic prediction, we combine the measures of relatedness from pedigree data with t…

NBCEC Brown Bagger: Implementation of single step methodologies at International Genetic Solutions

Dr. Mahdi Saatchi
International Genetic Solutions

IGS performs genetic evaluations for 12 breed associations from North America.
IGS has over 16 million animals in their database and is adding over 400,000 animals per yer.
IGS has 84,197 animals with genotypes. Simmental makes up about 40,000 of these genotypes.

Currently at IGS they blend the molecular breeding value (MBV, the genomic prediction) with the multi-breed international cattle evaluation. This is more like the blending that occurs with selection indexes.

Single-step genomic prediction allows information from genotyped animals to be spread to related animals in the data set.
Also, multiple-step genomic predictions were often trained on breeding values, and any errors in the estimation of the breeding values influenced the genomic prediction.

There are two approaches to single-step genetic evaluation. Single-step BLUP uses a breeding value model. Single-step Bayesian Regression uses a marker effects model.

In Single-step Bay…

eBEEF Monday: How to Get Started with DNA Testing

This fact sheet goes through the fundamentals of how and when producers might use DNA testing in beef cattle production.  It covers the different types of tests that are available, how to submit samples and to whom, and what to do with the results.

For more information, see the eBEEF.org factsheet "How to Get Started with DNA Testing".

eBEEF Monday: Recent Developments in Genetic Evaluations and Genomic Testing

The application of genomics to improve the accuracy of EPDs is a rapidly developing field. There are ongoing improvements in genotyping and sequencing technologies, statistical methods to increase the correlation between genomic predictions and true genetic merit, and the computing systems to handle the large datasets associated with animal breeding. One thing still remains true in the genomic age and that is the need to collect accurate phenotypic records. It is essential to ensure performance data, pedigree, and DNA information are recorded and reported accurately. Genomic predictions will only be as reliable as the data upon which they are based.  Although it might seem like the genomics era could signal the end of performance recording, the opposite is true. Now more than ever, it is important that producers accurately report data, and ensure that animals which are genotyped are correctly identified so that their information can contribute towards improving the accuracy of the gen…

eBEEF Monday: Recent Developments in Genetic Evaluations and Genomic Testing

The application of genomics to improve the accuracy of EPDs is a rapidly developing field. There are ongoing improvements in genotyping and sequencing technologies, statistical methods to increase the correlation between genomic predictions and true genetic merit, and the computing systems to handle the large datasets associated with animal breeding. One thing still remains true in the genomic age and that is the need to collect accurate phenotypic records. It is essential to ensure performance data, pedigree, and DNA information are recorded and reported accurately. Genomic predictions will only be as reliable as the data upon which they are based.  Although it might seem like the genomics era could signal the end of performance recording, the opposite is true. Now more than ever, it is important that producers accurately report data, and ensure that animals which are genotyped are correctly identified so that their information can contribute towards improving the accuracy of the gen…

eBEEF Monday: Recent Developments in Genetic Evaluations and Genomic Testing

The application of genomics to improve the accuracy of EPDs is a rapidly developing field. There are ongoing improvements in genotyping and sequencing technologies, statistical methods to increase the correlation between genomic predictions and true genetic merit, and the computing systems to handle the large datasets associated with animal breeding. One thing still remains true in the genomic age and that is the need to collect accurate phenotypic records. It is essential to ensure performance data, pedigree, and DNA information are recorded and reported accurately. Genomic predictions will only be as reliable as the data upon which they are based.  Although it might seem like the genomics era could signal the end of performance recording, the opposite is true. Now more than ever, it is important that producers accurately report data, and ensure that animals which are genotyped are correctly identified so that their information can contribute towards improving the accuracy of the gen…

eBEEF Monday: Commercial Replacement Heifer Selection

Heifer selection is an important aspect of commercial beef operations, but unlike bull selection must be done without the aid of Expected Progeny Differences. This factsheet discusses considerations when making heifer selections, including available genomics tools and the importance of sire selection when replacement heifers are to be retained.

For more information, see the eBEEF.org factsheet.

NCBEC Brown Bagger: Potential impacts of functional variants on national cattle evaluation

Larry Kuehn
USDA-MARC

When we go from less than a thousand animals to several thousands of animals, genomic predictions can explain about 50% of the genetic variance for important traits. Genomic prediction is working and providing tremendous benefits to seedstock and commercial producers.

But, we still struggle with genomic predictions with very little data recording and genomic predictions that work well across breeds.

Two methods are used to use genomics in national cattle evaluation. With the genomic pedigree method you track genetic effects more accurately than with pedigree data. With the second method you are relying on linkage on chromosomes between the DNA markers and the variants responsible for the differences (causal mutations).

The linkage signal between DNA markers and causal variants breaks down over generations due to recombination (switching) between paternal and maternal chromosomes. Because this linkage breaks down over time is part of the reason genomic prediciton…

eBEEF.org Monday: The Genetics of Horned, Polled and Scurred Cattle

The condition of horned, polled or scurred in cattle has important economic and welfare considerations, but is poorly understood. This factsheet explores the genetic aspects of these conditions, their relationships with each other and how to manage them in your breeding program.
For more information see the factsheet "The Genetics of Horned, Polled and Scurred Cattle" on eBEEF.org.

eBEEF.org Monday: Genetic Correlations and Antagonisms

Knowledge of which traits are antagonistic can be utilized to manage the impact of selection decisions on other correlated traits.  However, it is important to remember that although genetic correlations can sometimes create the need to exercise more care in selection to alleviate unintended consequences, these correlations can sometimes be utilized to our benefit.  Understanding the magnitude and direction of genetic correlations can assist in selection decisions.  Utilizing balanced selection for multiple EPDs in a breeding objective or using an appropriate selection index will ensure that genetic antagonisms don’t become a limiting factor for genetic progress.

See the eBEEF.org factsheet for more information.

Thompson Research Center Field Day: Modified Genes: Science or Supper?

Rod Geisert

In the 1950s, artificial insemination was developed. In 1978, the first human born from in vitro fertilization was born. Both of these technologies were criticized at the time, but now they are widely accepted.

When you fabricate something in science, you are going to get caught! When someone makes a claim in the literature, others try to replicate it. There was a fraudulent report of cloning in mice, and although this was not a true success, it got people thinking about and trying to clone animals.

A clone is simply an identical twin born on a different day.

Dolly the clone was named after Dolly Parton, because the cell from the donor sheep was from a mammary cell. Cloning animals did not immediately change how we raise livestock. But, cloning allows us to do additional things, like gene editing.

Who is going to feed the world? You are! Technology revolutions, like the green revolution and industrial revolution, have allowed the human population and food supply to continu…

Thompson Research Center Field Day: Economic Opportunities for Missouri Cattle Producers Facing Lower Cattle Prices

“Supply and Demand works!” said Scott Brown at the Thompson Research Center Field Day. We have seen huge increases in meat production in the last two years. In 2014, we saw record cattle prices. Beef producers saw high prices, so they produced more beef. This of course lead to lower cattle prices.
The strengthening dollar has also lead to fewer beef exports. Lots of beef production but very little exports. We may not be done with lower cattle prices. A $1.10 looked a lot better on the way up than on the way down.
“Scott, where is the bottom at? Guys, if I knew where the bottom was at I’d be rich by now” Brown said.
If you had bought LRP or futures in the spring, you would be much happier right now.

When comparing 2008 to 2016 cattle inventory, it looks like Texas, Oklahoma, and Missouri still have a lot of room left to grow.

If you look at cattle return for 2016, it is the 8th or 9th highest all time. In 2015, cow-calf producers were still in charge. Now, the cow-calf producer is only…

Decker Extension Evaluation Survey

When I was hired as a beef genetics state extension specialist in University of Missouri Extension, I said I would strive to have a data-driven extension program. It is now time to more fully evaluate my extension program. I would sincerely appreciate if you would take a few minutes to complete the survey below:

Decker Extension Evaluation Survey

All responses are anonymous. The survey will be open till Friday October 21, 2016. Please one survey per person.

Don't hesitate to contact me with questions or concerns.

Thompson Research Center Field Day: Overview of reproductive research at the Th ompson Research Center

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Dave Patterson

Patterson's research focus seeks to answer the question "Can we overcome the resistance to adopt AI with the development of fixed timed AI protocols?"

The Thompson Research Center has been involved with AI research since 1997 when the FDA was evaluating the use of CIDRs using cattle at the farm. In 1998, Patterson started using the center for his research and many students have been trained while working on projects at the research center.

The Show-Me-Select Program is designed to help producers understand the importance of heifer development based on reproductive success. There have been 271 veterinarians involved in the program and 123,091 heifers have been enrolled in the program. There have been $44,565,350 in gross sales through Show-Me-Select heifer sales. Ninety-five percent of the counties in Missouri have enrolled heifers in the Show-Me-Select program. Heifers from the Show-Me-Select program have been sold into 19 states. Heifers are classified as…

eBEEF Monday: What is Gene Editing?

Gene editing is a category of new methods that can be used to precisely edit or change the genetic code. As the name “gene editing” suggests, these technologies enable researchers to add, delete, or replace letters in the genetic code. In the same way that spell check identifies and corrects single letter errors in a word or grammar errors in a sentence, gene editing can be used to identify and change the letters that make up the genetic code (i.e. DNA) within an individual. This factsheet explores the many possible uses of gene editing.
For more information see the factsheetat eBEEF.org.

Profitability in focus at Red Angus Commercial Cattlemen’s Symposium in Oklahoma City

Oklahoma City – Cattlemen from around the country gathered in Oklahoma City to attend “Dollars in Your Pocket,” the Commercial Cattlemen’s Symposium held in conjunction with the National Red Angus Convention. A full slate of speakers addressed 200 cattlemen and women on overall profitability in the industry, present economic conditions, nutritional changes to improve cowherd efficiency, and calf crop marketing methods. Dr. Clint Rusk, head of the animal science department at Oklahoma State University, served as emcee for the day.

Darrell Peel, Oklahoma State University Extension Ag Economist, opened the session with a market forecast. “Cattle slaughter is up, carcass weight is up resulting in a 4.7 percent increase in beef production. Total meat supplies will be up, with beef leading the way,” Peel noted. “It should be noted that there is only a 1.5 percent increase in beef consumption.”

He also stated that beef demand continues to be strong. He expects it to rise further as beef pric…

ASA Fall Focus: Taking Technology Home to the Farm and Ranch

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Here are videos from the American Simmental Association's Facebook livestream of my presentation titled "Taking Technology Home to the Farm and Ranch."

Tradition
Intuition
Legacy
Seedstock Producers as Educators
Decker's Rants
EPDs and Environment 
Q&A

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ASA Fall Focus: Information Learned from the IGS Genomics and Genetic Evaluation

Dorian Garrick
Iowa State University

Garrick started working on animal models applied to sheep and goats in 1982 (the year I was born ☺).

In the old system, each breed has their own data silo. This is combined together to have a joint pedigree and performance data.

Genomics has changed this.

EPDs are determined by the collective action of many genes. Selection increases the frequency of favorable gene effects and decreases the frequency of unfavorable gene effects. This allows producers to breed better cattle year after year. Genomics allows us to increase the accuracy of genetic prediction, especially for young animals with little or no data.

In human medicine, researchers are looking for individual DNA variants that are predictive of a person's risk for developing a disease. In beef cattle genomics, we don't use this conservative approach; we use all of the DNA variants simultaneously. Using all of the DNA variants gives much better predictions.

The hoped outcome is data to …

ASA Fall Focus: BOLT

Bruce Golden
Theta Solutions LLC

Historically, Simmental has been one of the leaders in the development of genetic prediction.

There has been evolution of statistical models used to predict genetic merit (EPDs). Each time the EPDs got better and better. To predict EPDs, you do two things; first you build the problem on the computer then you solve the problem.

What drove the evolution of the methods used to predict genetic merit?
Knowledge of the model? All of these models were well known by 1970.
New methods? Maybe a little.
Data? Yes, there has been the creation of genomic data and more phenotypic records.

But, the main driver has been to improve the accuracy of prediction. Striving to reduce the prediction error variance. Try to make sure that we are making better solutions and increasing the rate of genetic gain.

Improvements in computing power has also helped in the development of genetic predictions.

Another change is going to be better DNA markers that are closer to the genes an…

ASA Fall Focus: Application of Genomic Technology to Optimize Herd Replacement and Produce Elite Breeding Stock

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Mahdi Saatchi
Lead Genomicist
International Genetic Solutions

Imagine a sire who is heterozygous (one A variant and one B variant) for a DNA position. At that same position a dam  is also heterozygous.
If we consider two progeny of this pair of sire and dam, they can be 0% related to 100% related at this position.

Calf 1Calf 2RelationshipA/AA/A100%A/AA/B50%A/AB/B0%A/BA/A50%A/BA/B100%A/BB/B50%B/BA/A0%B/BA/B50%B/BB/B100%
If we apply this to the entire genome, we expect full siblings to share 50% of their DNA. But, just as the relationships can vary at a single locus, the relationships can vary for the entire genome. In chicken data, researchers see that the relationship between siblings ranges from 0.2 to 0.7.

By more precisely measuring the relationship between animals, genomics allows us to more precisely predict an animal's genetic merit.

Genomics allows us to improve several parts of the key equation for genetic change. Genomics allows us to have more accurate selection decisions…

ASA Fall Focus: Nuts and Bolts of Animal Breeding

Wade Shafer

What is the science of animal breeding? Shafer cited Wikipedia, saying, "The scientific theory of animal breeding incorporates population genetics, quantitative genetics, statistics, and recently molecular genomics and is based on the pioneering work of Sewall Wright, Jay Lush, and Charles Henderson."
He highlighted the work of Sewell Wright, Jay Lush, and Henderson, and Lenoy Hazel. Not only is animal breeding about the genetic value of animals, it is also about the economic value of those animals.

Animal breeding is where the rubber meets the road. "It is one of the most practical sciences."

Simmental has the slogan of "Visual analysis tells you what an animal appears to be, his pedigree tells you what he should be, his performance and progeny tells you what he actually is."

In 1971, Vaniman used Paul Miller, a dairy genetics at ABS, to produce the first sire summary using Boeing Airlines computers.  The foreword said that sire summaries wou…

17th Annual Missouri Livestock Symposium December 2nd and 3rd

The Missouri Livestock Symposium committee is currently planning their 17th annual Symposium in Kirksville, MO for December 2nd and 3rd. The Missouri Livestock Symposium (MLS) committee works year-round to find the best speakers on timely topics that benefit producers in their respective enterprises.
The MLS began in 1998 with a simple conversation between then University of Missouri Extension Livestock Specialist Bruce Lane (retired) and local Adair County livestock producer and current MLS chair, Garry Mathes. Since those humble beginnings the MLS has grown exponentially and recently had attendees covering a majority of Missouri’s 114 counties plus 16 states, with over 2,000 in attendance.
Attendees have an opportunity to attend the largest agricultural-based trade show in the Midwest, featuring many local, state, and national agricultural businesses. Comments regularly heard include, “my favorite show,” “something for everyone in the field of agriculture,” and “we were made to feel…

The Next Generation

The beef industry values sustainability. We value successful operations that are passed on to generation after generation. That is why beef producers support  youth programs. Those of you who know me personally, know I am way too busy for my own good.  I've learned to say no and am making strides in simplifying. When the beef project leader in my kid's 4-H club came open, I should have kept my mouth shut. Instead, I volunteered to be the leader, because I value educating youth. I wanted to pay it forward and help kids fall in love with cattle the way I did. On Friday July 8th will be our Sturgeon Beef Show. I hope those of you in mid-Missouri will come out and enjoy the successes of our youth. If you are interested in sponsoring a breed champion, please let me know. Thanks to those who have already sponsored. Watch the blog for pictures of my little ones falling in love with cattle. If you time driving by my house just right,  you might even catch a glimpse of a computational …

BIF 2016: Genomics, return on investment - fact or fiction?

Tonya Amen
Consultant for Illumina, Inc.

One dairy operation was making $35 per year progress for net merit. After using genomics in late 2009, they were making $50 per year in progress for net merit. After they started testing females, this rate increased to nearly $80.
This dairy herd is now seeing $340 more in life time production by using genomics.

From 2005 to 2008, $B was increasing by $3.77 per year.
From 2009 to 2015, $B increased by $5.62 per year.

From 2013 to 2015, $B increased by $9.31 per year.
A 146% increase in genetic trend.

We have seen more rapid genetic improvement in Angus, Hereford and Simmental, all of which line up nicely with the deployment of GE-EPDs. Thus, it is possible (likely?) that this improved genetic improvement is due to the benefit of genomics.

In the dairy industry, genomics is equivalent to 25 production records, 25 conformation records, and 140 fertility records.
Genomics is saving the Canadian dairy industry $111 million dollars annually.
Genomic…

BIF 2016: Using genomic tools in commercial beef cattle: taking heifer selection to the next level

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Tom Short
Zoetis

Can genetic information from a simple DNA sample allow us to reasonable accuracy of the females lifetime performance?

We know that our national cow herd inventory decreased to a very low level in 2014.

When we rebuilt the cow herd did we keep low quality heifers that should have never been cows?

What type of genomic prediction should we be using to select commercial heifers?

GeneMax Advantage was produced by a collaboration of Angus Genetics Inc, Certified Angus Beef, and Zoetis. It is applicable to beef females that are at least 75% Black Angus. These predictions are based on the Zoetis HD50K product for Angus. The correlations between the genomic predictions and the breeding value are all quite good, around 75%.

The individual traits are combined into three indexes. These are a Cow Advantage Score, Feeder Advantage Score, and Total Advantage Score. The correlation between Total Advantage and the Cow and Feeder indexes are about 70%, but the correlation between Cow A…

BIF 2016: Can Beef Seedstock Producers Afford Genomics?

Breeding objectives indicate value of genomics for beef cattle

Dr. Mike MacNeil
DeltaG

Is genomic testing a good value to seedstock producers? The answer to this question requires several different lines of thought. To answer this we need a system based approach.

What makes up a genetic prediction?

Information from relativesMolecular breeding valueCorrelated phenotypesPhenotype No individual animal in a genetic prediction ever has an accuracy of prediction of zero. The information from the calf's relatives brings in substantial amount of information.
What are the advantageous of genomic prediction? 1) Increase accuracy of evaluation 2) More exciting is the opportunity to incorporate additional traits costly or difficult to measuremeasured late in life (after the time of selection decisions)sex-limited 3) Avoid prolonged generation intervals. For many selection decisions in beef cattle, we make many selection decisions around a year of age. 4) Reputation. This is hard to quantify in d…